The Association of German Engineers (VDI) has examined possible applications of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and use (CCU). The VDI takes a critical view of CCS, citing risks to the population. (The result for CCU, on the other hand, is unambiguous: “For a greenhouse gas-neutral future, the capture and material use of carbon dioxide is indispensable,” it says. CO2 should be “captured from all still available concentrated sources and the air”. The VDI further suggests locating CCU plants near large CO2 sources such as iron and steel works or refineries.